Saturday, August 12, 2017

Miss Carolina, Queen of North American Wolf Spiders

A few years ago I was enjoying a night ride on my mountain bike in our local foothills. I was wearing a headlamp that night because I was using eye shine to locate nocturnal creatures as they were looking in my direction from their dark hiding places along the hillside.  Eye shine occurs when light reflects from tapetum lucidum, a layer of special tissue in the eyes of many vertebrates. I needed to have the light source near my own eyes so I could see when the light reflected back from the eye shine displaying critters. I located jackrabbits, cotton-tailed rabbits, raccoons, foxes, deer, and common poorwills (nocturnal bird species) during that particular ride. Somewhere along my ride that night the eye shine from smaller creatures caught my attention. I stopped to investigate the owner of one of those smaller eye shines. I approached it, put a spot light on it, and discovered a very large spider. I almost did a happy dance as I thought that I might have found my very first tarantula. It was a large, hairy spider--larger than any spider I'd seen before. The face of the giant spider was quite hairy. I took a few photos of that spider and shared them with some spider experts only to discover that it was actually a Carolina Wolf Spider. Until that night I was unaware of the fact that many spiders have tapetum lucidum. I also discovered that the female Carolina wolf spiders are North America's largest wolf spiders, the queens of wolf spiders.

I found a few large females recently and played around with capturing some macro images of one this morning while hiking with my son, Jason. If you are not a spider expert (which I am not) you'd probably think this is a tarantula, wouldn't you?


I asked my son, Jason, to put his finger in the frame for the next image to a relative size comparison.


Unfortunately I got the spider a little dusty while trying to get it to cooperate with me. The dust particles make it difficult to see that the spider actually has eight eyes. The image above sort of shows the four larger eyes at the top of the head, but they don't show the four smaller eyes that, to me, resemble a frowny face.

Below is another image that shows some of the eyes a little better. You can see two larger eyes on the visible side of the spider's head. There is a matching set on the opposite side of the head. You can also see two of the four smaller eyes that are tiny purplish nubs right next to and below the larger eye in the front.


This is a heavily cropped image to show the four smaller, purplish eyes. Six of the eight eyes are present in this image. The other two are obstructed by hair and the angle of the head. The color and size variation resemble small jewels.


This final image provides a decent view of the pedipalps, or feelers, the two shortened legs used to sense and guide prey into the mouth.


A few other interesting things I've learned about these wolf spiders is that they are found throughout most of the US and parts of Canada, typically in arid deserts, prairies, fields, and pastures. Males typically die in the fall after their first breeding season while females may live several years. Unlike others, female wolf spiders carry an egg sack that may produce over 100 young spiders. Those young ones tag along on mom's back for a short period after they hatch and then they head out on their own.

Monday, July 24, 2017

Ewe and Lamb: Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep

Traffic slow downs are not always a bad deal. Take yesterday afternoon for example.  I was driving down the two lane road of American Fork Canyon in Utah County, Utah when traffic suddenly began to slow. Slowing transitioned to a complete stop and a realization that the hold up was courtesy of a ewe Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep and her lamb. Both were lazily moving along the road at the base of a rocky hillside. While I have seen bighorn sheep in other areas of Utah, this was only my second, and best, encounter with this species in all the years I've been driving up and down American Fork Canyon. The first time I encountered them was about a year ago as a few of them were running up a tree-covered hillside. Perhaps these are signs that we'll see them more often in the future.

Thanks to a habit I have of taking my camera gear along when I head into the mountains I was able to pull off to a shoulder and capture some images of the ewe and her lamb.





The lamb eventually made its way to a resting spot about 20 yards up the hillside. The ewe remained by the road where she began to forage on available vegetation. The ewe eventually moved up the hillside to forage closer to her lamb. The lamb moved down the hillside to meet her.





The ewe was definitely aware that I and others were watching her and her lamb. I knew because she would periodically stare in our direction. However, she would soon return to foraging. I don't know their behavior all that well, but I suspected that she would not hesitate to protect her little lamb so I stayed on the far side of the road to avoid the possibility of



I would have enjoyed seeing a ram with his "big" curved horns yesterday, but those guys don't stick around after breeding. They separate from the ewes after mating and leave the ewes to tend to their individual lambs. The big boys show up to clash horns and "ram" their way up a dominance hierarchy just before and during the rut, or mating season. The gestation period for bighorns is about six months. Rocky Mountain bighorns are larger than other bighorns. The rams stand about 4 tall and can weigh from 200 to more than 400 pounds.  The ewes are a few inches shorter and weigh around 200 pounds, give or take depending upon their health. The horns of a ram can weigh up to 30 pounds, which I've read is about the equivalent of the weight of the rest of the bones in the ram's body.

Here's a phone video I captured when I first came upon the ewe and the lamb yesterday.


Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Hello, Osprey! Goodbye, Catfish!

Birders love when a new season rolls around because they anticipate seeing the return of familiar birds. Sometimes those new birds show up a little earlier than expected and provide a nice surprise. Such was the case for me March 18th as I was leaving a familiar birding hotspot in Utah County, Utah. I was about to end a short outing when I noticed my first-of-season Osprey flying against a bit of a headwind while towing a large fish in its talons. The bird chose to turn a nearby power pole into a plucking pole. I pulled alongside the road and remained in my truck to avoid flushing the bird. It turned out that when I reported my sighting of an Osprey to www.ebird.org it was the first Osprey to be reported for the year in Utah County and northern Utah.

The images below show the Osprey's typical bite, twist, and pull approach to eating prey.







Friday, March 17, 2017

Pygmy Owls and Desert Reptiles

Northern Pygmy Owl in Tooele County, Utah, USA

I was beginning a new work week in my Salt Lake County office this past Monday when I looked out the window and was struck with the majesty of  the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains under clear blue skies. Temperatures were expected to reach into the 70s for the first time of the new year. We'd been through a winter of heavy snowfall and it was finally looking AND feeling like spring. I checked my calendar for Tuesday and made a swift decision to take Tuesday off so I could spend some much-needed time in the outdoors. I sent a text to my friend Eric to see if he wanted to join me. He had no hesitation on his part since he already had the day off. We made plans to visit a number of places, but I was particularly hopeful that we'd locate a Northern Pygmy Owl and confirm that reptiles were beginning to emerge from their winter retreats in our nearby desert. I admit that seems like an odd pairing of objectives, but that's what I wanted to do.

We spent the early hours before dawn attempting to locate a Long-eared Owl, which we did. We were able to hear one calling from the dark at Warm Springs WMA near Goshen, Utah. We also found a pair of Great Horned Owls and listened to them hoot back and forth to each other. As I was recording their courting calls the male flew over to the branch where the female was perched. They quickly copulated and then the male flew to another tree. It seemed late for Great Horned Owl copulation since they begin breeding in January and February here in Utah, but perhaps they had a failed clutch and were trying for a repeat clutch. Who really knows? In the same general area we heard a male Short-eared owl hooting from the tall grass of a nearby field.


Encountering three owl species in a matter of hours was fantastic, but we still needed to locate a Northern Pygmy Owl. We made a drive through Chimney Rock Pass and then up to Fairfield and over to Ophir Canyon. I love the wide-ranging public lands we can wonder here in Utah and other western states. We saw a Prairie Falcon, Golden Eagle, and small groups of Pronghorns along the way.

We eventually made our way to Ophir Canyon in Tooele (too-willa) County where we would begin our earnest search of a Pygmy Owl. Pinyon Jays were flying from Juniper to Juniper and giving their laughing calls as we entered the canyon. Scrub Jays and Juniper Titmice were also present in the lower section of the canyon. We stopped in one location part way up the canyon and began to scour the trees. I noticed the silhouette of a small bird that popped up from the ground and then perched on the backside of some trees downhill from the road we were on. With my binoculars I was able to confirm that it was a Pygmy Owl so we sat in the truck and waited a while to see what it would do. It was in hunting mode-twitching its tail, bobbing its head, and staring intently at times toward the ground beneath its perch. We eventually ended up watching the tiny bird hunt from a very close vantage point.

Northern Pygmy Owl Tooele County, Utah, USA

Northern Pygmy Owl Tooele County, Utah, USA

The owl pictured above was most likely a male. It seemed a bit small, but size is hard to tell without a relative comparison.

After spending a little time with the Pygmy Owl we made our way up the canyon where we discovered a Clark's Nutcracker and Steller's Jays. We turned around and headed back down the canyon and just as we drove past the previous Pygmy Owl location a larger female flew up to and landed on the tree right next to the road. We were able to see both birds at the same time and compare the relative sizes so we believe the bird pictured below is the female of a breeding pair.

Northern Pygmy Owl Tooele County, Utah, USA

Northern Pygmy Owls are diurnal birds, most active from dawn to dusk, and just over six inches long from head to tip of tail. They generally perch hunt, meaning they perch, wait, and then seize prey that passes beneath or near their perch. They generally prey on small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and even birds. When prey is seen they dive down and sink their sharp, powerful talons into the throat of the prey. If they take a bird they will pluck the feathers before consuming the insides of the skull and chest cavity.  You can see the sharp and relatively strong talons and hooked bill in most of the images I'm sharing. These birds seem rather cute unless you are on the wrong end of the food chain from them. From that perspective they are deadly beasts.

Northern Pygmy Owl Tooele County, Utah, USA

Northern Pygmy Owl Tooele County, Utah, USA

Northern Pygmy Owl Tooele County, Utah, USA



I never really plan on capturing video with my camera so consequently I'm never quite ready when the opportunity presents itself. The male owl was so accommodating while we were watching it so I decided to give video a  try. Unfortunately, it is hard to keep the lens steady without the use of a tripod when it is zoomed to 500mm. The first part of the video below was captured while using Eric's shoulder to steady the lens. Other parts were captured as I lay on my back away from the tree in which the owl was perched, rested the lens on my knees, and supported my head on the dried-out tree clump you see in the middle of the gravel area in the image to the right.

The video quality is best when viewed in HD.


On our way home we stopped at a friends house in Fairfield and observed a White-throated Sparrow, a rare bird for Utah. We also encountered a couple more roosting owls in Fairfield and a Golden Eagle that had a rather full crop that made us wonder what it had been eating, most likely one of the many jack rabbits that inhabit the sagebrush habitat surrounding Fairfield. We drove up and over Soldiers Pass at the south end of Lake Mountain and on the west side of Utah Lake. It is one of my local happy places. I have some great memories of camping with my sons and birding with friends at Soldiers Pass. We see coyotes, foxes, jack rabbits, reptiles, and unique summer birds that breed at Soldiers Pass during the spring and summer months. The desert habitat, lake, and distant mountains create beautiful landscapes that change with the seasons.

The View From Soldiers Pass Looking Over Cedar Valley to the West in Utah County, Utah, USA

We didn't spend much time birding Soldiers Pass. My objective there was primarily to check one of my favorite herping (reptile hunting) spots to see if the reptiles were surfacing for the season. I was delighted to see that several Common Side-blotched Lizards had emerged from their winter retreats. It felt good to be out enjoying the spring weather with the critters I had not seen since early fall of last year.

This Common Side-blotched Lizard Recently Emerged From a Winter Retreat at Soldiers Pass
Early Spring in Utah County, Utah, USA

Here is the final scene as Eric and I left Soldiers Pass and headed out to grab a late lunch of Mexican food before making our way home. Being in a desert, next to a lake, while surrounded by snow-capped mountains was refreshing and energizing. I can't wait to see what new discoveries will be made in the months to come.

The View From Soldiers Pass Looking East Across Utah Lake in Utah County, Utah, USA